Fa-Hsuan Lin


Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
2075 Bayview Avenue, S6-69, Toronto, Ontario Canada M4N 3M5
Research Interests
Biomedical Imaging, Image-Guided Therapy and Device Development, Neuroscience

At A Glance

  • Neuroimaging-guided neuromodulation: Promote mental and neurological healthcare by developing hardware, acquisition, analysis, and applications of functional MRI, EEG, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to achieve high spatiotemporal resolution imaging and modulation of neural activity.
  • Neuroimaging using complex naturalistic stimuli: Probe and modulate high-order cognitive function and dysfunction using advanced machine learning and artificial intelligence methods to analyze, manipulate, and create audiovisual stimuli.

Research Synopsis

Dr. Lin’s research aims to establish an integrated non-invasive multimodal neuroimaging and neuromodulation platform to advance our understanding of brain function and dysfunction and improve the healthcare of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Specifically, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) will be used to observe hemodynamic and neuronal responses with a high spatial and temporal resolution, respectively. Complex naturalistic audiovisual stimuli and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) will be delivered through sensory and physical channels to modulate brain activity. Together, the seamlessly integrated neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques will guide the trajectory of brain dynamics toward better mental health.

Neuroimaging technologies

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI has millimeter spatial resolution and versatile contrasts. MRI has been extensively used in clinical medicine and neuroscience studies to provide structural, functional, and metabolic information. We are devoted to advancing MRI technology in order to improve its spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. We aim to develop a tailored combination of receiver coil array, spatial encoding magnetic fields, main magnetic field, pulse sequences, and image reconstruction algorithms in order to optimize MRI in different neuroscience and clinical applications.

Electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and stereo-EEG (SEEG): EEG and MEG are methods of studying neural activities non-invasively using extracranial measurements of magnetic fields and electric potentials, respectively. We continuously develop EEG and MEEG methods in order to better understand how the human brain works via studies of MEG/EEG source localization, neuronal oscillations, and multimodal (EEG/MEG/MRI) integration. We also developed methods of analyzing SEEG, an invasive recording of multiple electrodes implanted in medically refractory patients. These data allow for unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of neuronal activities.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): TMS stimulates neural populations at the cortex via transient and strong magnetic pulses delivered by coils outside the head. We use neuroimaging (MRI/EEG/MEG) and navigation systems to excite and inhibit neural activity in a spatiotemporally accurate way.

Computational neural models: With rich datasets of brain activities characterized by neuronal, hemodynamic, and metabolic measures, we develop computational tools to reveal correlations and causal modulations between the brain and behaviors. Specifically, we aim to use advanced machine learning methods to develop models by combining large neuroimaging data sets and project-specific data sets with a smaller sample size.

Clinical applications

Epilepsy: We use concurrent EEG-MRI measurement to delineate epileptogenic regions for medically refractory patients. EEG provides high-resolution waveforms of neuronal activities. However, the spatial resolution of EEG is relatively poor and inhomogeneous. Functional MRI provides high-resolution maps of whole-brain activity. Combining EEG and functional MRI can sensitively localize brain areas generating epileptic events.

Psychiatric disorders: We use complex naturalistic (audiovisual) stimuli to detect and characterize brain areas with impaired high-order cognitive functions, such as the sense of humor and social perception. This neuroimaging paradigm can be used in mental health care for schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and bipolar individuals.

Neurodegenerative disease: Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, can be manifested in memory decline. We develop non-invasive imaging and interventional methods to measure and promote neural substrates supporting this crucial brain function.

Neuroscience studies

Brain activities under complex naturalistic stimuli: We use materials of rich audiovisual contents to detect and characterize brain areas underpinning high-order cognitive functions, such as the sense of humor, emotion regulation, music perception, and social perception.

Neurovascular coupling of the human brain: We use high spatiotemporal resolution data across imaging modalities to measure neural (MEG, EEG, SEEG) and hemodynamic responses (fMRI) of the human brain. These data shed light on how information is processed and integrated in the brain.

Recent Publications

“Distributed source modeling of stereoencephalographic measurements of ictal activity Clinical Neurophysiology”, Hsin-Ju Lee, Lin-Yao Chien, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chien-Chen Chou, Wen-Jui Kuo, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Clinical Neurophysiology, (2024)

“Visual stimuli modulate local field potentials but drive no high-frequency activity in human auditory cortex”, Jyrki Ahveninen, Hsin-Ju Lee, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Cheng-Chia Lee, Chien-Chen Chou, Seppo P. Ahlfors, Wen-Jui Kuo, Iiro P. Jääskeläinen, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Journal of Neuroscience, (2023), Vol. 44(7), e0890232023, doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0890-23.2023.

“Design of coil holder for the improved maneuvering in concurrent TMS-MRI”, Hsin-Ju Lee, KJ Woudsma, Mohammed F. Ishraq, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Brain Stimulation, (2023), Vol.16 (3), 966-968. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2023.06.001.

“Ballistocardiogram suppression in concurrent EEG-MRI by dynamic modeling of heartbeats”, Hsin-Ju Lee, Simon J Graham, Wen-Jui Kuo, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Human Brain Mapping (2022), Vol. 43. pp. 4444-4457, doi:

Multivariate identification of functional neural networks underpinning humorous movies viewing“, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Hsin-Ju Lee, Wen-Jui Kuo* and Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Frontiers in Psychology-Cognitive Science, (2021), 11:547353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.547353

Differential brain mechanisms during reading human vs. machine translated fiction and news texts“, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Yun-Fei Liu, Hsin-Ju Lee, Claire H. C. Chang, Iiro P. Jaaskelainen, Jyh-Neng Yeh, Wen-Jui Kuo, Scientific Reports, (2019) Vol. 9, Article number:13251, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49632-w

Reduced synchronized brain activity in schizophrenia during viewing of comedy movies“, Pei-Chi Tu, Tung-Ping Su, Wei-Chen Lin, Wan-Chen Chang, Ya-Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Fa-Hsuan Lin, Scientific Reports, (2019) Vol. 8, Article number:13287,doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-48957-w

Graduate Students

KJ Woudsma
Moh Israq
Jessica Din